ه‍.ش. ۱۳۸۹ بهمن ۹, شنبه

way the british empir want to made a small afghanistan

way the british empir want to made a small afghanistan
the government of British for the first time 1612 established commerce company in India. They had interested to the Indian soil fertility, gold, silver, crops, whether, and others. Indian had trading with the Portuguese, in 1542,franc ,Dutch, Japan and British. On that period for removing the other company used by military force was best method. Which all those are drawed by British company. East India Company (also the East India Trading Company, English East India Company, and then the British East India Company) was an early English joint-stock company that was formed initially for pursuing trade with the East Indies, but that ended up trading with the Indian subcontinent and China. The oldest among several similarly formed European East India Companies, the Company was granted an English Royal Charter, under the name Governor and Company of Merchants of London Trading into the East Indies, by Elizabeth I on 31 December 1600. After a rival English company challenged its monopoly in the late 17th century, the two companies were merged in 1708 to form the United Company of Merchants of England Trading to the East Indies, commonly styled the Honourable East India Company, and abbreviated, HEIC; the Company was colloquially referred to as John Company, and in India as Company Bahadur (Hindustani bahādur, "brave"). The East India Company traded mainly in cotton, silk, indigo dye, saltpetre, tea, and opium. However, it also came to rule large swathes of India, exercising military power and assuming administrative functions, to the exclusion, gradually, of its commercial pursuits. Company rule in India, which effectively began in 1757 after the Battle of Plassey, lasted until 1858, when, following the events of the Indian Rebellion of 1857, and under the Government of India Act 1858, the British Crown assumed direct administration of India in the new British Raj. The Company itself was finally dissolved on 1 January 1874, as a result of the East India Stock Dividend Redemption Act. The Company long held a privileged position in relation to the English, and later the British, government. As a result, it was frequently granted special rights and privileges, including trade monopolies and exemptions. These caused resentment among its competitors, who saw unfair advantage in the Company's position. Despite this resentment, the Company remained a powerful force for over 200 years Mahmud of Ghazni (Persian: محمود غزنوی Mahmud of Ghazna (November 2, 971 - April 30, 1030 was a king of Afghanistan. he started attract to Indian 1001 .he attack many time to Indian until 1023 .the area witch occupied by Mahmud become Muslim by force. After empire Mahmud all the Ghaznawi kings extend Islam religious to the many place of Indian. After King Mahmud all the afghan king defense from all Muslim area witch located in India. Most place of Indian which not accepted Islam they satisfied to pay each year tribute to afghan government. On that period Islamic country was very strong in Asia. Naturally Indian people was not strong because 1n 1600 century using of sword was usual . Central Asia and Arabic country was famous to using of sword. The Indian people were tiered from Muslim regime in Indian. the Mughal Empire spanned almost 750,000,000 acres (3,000,000 km2), about 9/10 the size of modern India. Mughal kings taking 50 % tax from former spicial emperor, Shah Jahan, raised taxes to fifty percent of a farmer's crops, while he sat upon his throne amid a display of great wealth, impressing visitors from abroad. . It was to difficult to the formers. Therefore most Indian leader not want living under the Islamic Kong. They want living independent. Also besides Muslim there were others nationality lived in Indian. There was many problem and variation between them. It is mean Indian divided politically it was not strong enough to prevent or discourage an invasion from the northwest. The Indian company used from those aspects was best way to occupied Indian. Indian Hindu and other had fight many time with the Muslim empire .but it was too difficult to be succeed on Muslim empire ,because if the Indian muslim empire become week they asking help from Afghanistan .Each Muslim Kong OF india have solder from afghan. many time Indian was under afghan domination or some time north Indian and Afghanistan was one country. Ahmad Shah Durrani as the first Emir of Afghanistan in October 1747. Ahmad shah attack to Indian many time but not to the area Mughal Kong .he attack for to extended the Muslim area. Ahamad sha sons timur sha He married the daughter of the Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah. Leaving his second son Timur Shah (who was wed to the daughter of (Alamgir II) to safeguard his interests, it means Ahamad sha want islam . on that period England find a good chance to comm. on the stage. The Mughal power in northern India had been declining since the reign of Aurangzeb, who died in 1707; the Marathas, who already controlled much of western and central India from their capital at Pune, were straining to expand their area of control. After Ahmad Shah sacked the Mughal capital and withdrew with the booty he coveted, the Marathas filled the power void; in 1758, within a year of Ahmad Shah's return to Kandahar, the Marathas secured possession of the Punjab, and succeeded in ousting his son Timur Shah and his court from India. England helped Marathas government against Ahamad sha ,because there was to power in India Ahamad sha and Marathas. If Marathas failed there is som place of India belong to British because Marathas was the big power in Indian. Marthas government give promise to British if they are become successful gives some area to British company.
After Maratha England used from Indian popal against afghan government but it was difficult to coming up. In Indian capital Delhi was an empire .the empires was Muslim .any time which empire find a difficulty .He asked help from afghan government. Special after 1947 the empire of afghan fund mach more difficulty .but this difficulty was god chanc for britsh.the british until 1800 wich sha zaman was a king in Afghanistan not opposite of afghan government it is mean not have chanc to atact the authority of afghan. ZAMAN SHAH. The fifth son of Timor ruled the Durrani Empire with the help of the chief of the Afghan tribe of Barakzay. His attempt to invade India alarmed the British, who induced the Iranian Qajar ruler Fatteh Ali Shah to support Zaman Shah's brother Mahmud in his struggle for power. With British help Mahmud advanced on Kabul, captured and blinded his brother, and assumed power. Mahmud Shah Durrani was the ruler of the Durrani Empire between 1801 and 1803, again between 1809 and 1818. He was the son of Timur Shah Durrani and Grand son of Dur-e-Durran Aaleh Hazrat Ghazi King Ahmad Shah Abdali Sadozai Durrani. King Mahmud Shah Durrani was half-brother of his predecessor, Zaman Shah. On July 25, 1801, Zaman Shah was deposed, and Mahmud Shah ascended to ruler ship. He then had a chequered career; he was deposed in 1803, restored in 1809, and finally deposed again in 1818. His son Shahzada Kamran Durrani saddozai was always in trouble with Amir Fatted Khan Barakzai brother of Dost Muhammad Khan.after assassination of Fateh Khan Barakzai the fall of Saddozai dynasty (Sadozai Durrani Empires ) was begun. King Mahmud Shah Durrani died in 1829. Between his two stnts, the country was ruled by Shoja Shah, another of his half-brothers. The empire of durani area was fatteh khan (Pakistan), Mawarannahr (Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan or takharistan), and part of Iran. Shah Mohammad was there biggest son of Timor shah, shah zaman was the fifth son of him. Under the afghan culture low shah Mahmud must become king of Afghanistan .but shah zaman with the help of sardar payenda khan chef of barakzay become king .Afghanistan funded two Kong shah Mahmud in Heart and shah zaman in Kabul. This opposition cased the other like Ranjit sing in Punjab, Qajar in Iran raised to power .and the afghan empire destroyed by 5 brothers. The British attack to every place of Indian and occupied almost all Indian Ranjit was a big wall for afghan government to help Indian government. When England keep eye to the brothers .helped Ranjit sing in Punjab Qajar in west Afghanistan to fight against afghan government. The British attack to very wear of India there is not barrier was face to England. To time afghan government had ready to attack to England .when the army was near Peshawar the qajar attack to heart and they are coming near to Qandahar. The afghan army back to hearat Ranjit Singh's early conquests were minor and forgettable when he was a young misldar (baron) but by the end of his reign he had conquered vast tracts of territory, and in 1799, he even captured Lahore, (which is now located in Pakistan). After the capture of Lahore, he rapidly annexed the rest of the Punjab. The war rose to a climax at the battle of Multan. Thereafter he was the undisputed ruler of Punjab, the Land of the Five Rivers. To secure his empire, he defeated the Pashtun militias and tribes of the tribal areas of Afghanistan. The Muslim Mughals, at this time, had already lost their empire due to their internal fightings, thus causing famous Rajput revolt, the reestablishment of the Maharana of Mewar and the rising power of the Marathas during the 1700s. In the year 1819, Ranjit Singh s
uccessfully annexed Kashmir. Ranjit Singh lead the Sikh army and invaded Sewad (the Peshawar area) in 1818 wresting it from Afghanistan and making it a part of The Sikh Kingdom of Punjab. In 1820 he annexed Hazara. In 1823, he defeated a large Afghan army at Nowshera, on the banks of the Kabul River.the Afghan army returned to defense against Ranjit Singh, Qajar occupied sestan and khorasan it was too difficult to afghan army every time they are walking and running 1500 km in short time. The last afghan armies become from internal fighting and to strong rival which supported by England. England putted Afghanistan between to enemy until occupied almost all Indian from the mughul empir.

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