ه‍.ش. ۱۳۹۱ مهر ۲۷, پنجشنبه

Mammals of Afanistan

. There are 128 mammal species in [[Afghanistan]], of which 0 are critically endangered, 4 are endangered, 12 are vulnerable, and 5 are near-threatened.<ref>This list is derived from the [[IUCN Red List]] which lists species of mammals and includes those mammals that have recently been classified as extinct (since 1500 AD). The taxonomy and naming of the individual species is based on those used in existing Wikipedia articles as of 21 May 2007 and supplemented by the common names and taxonomy from the IUCN, Smithsonian Institute, or University of Michigan where no Wikipedia article was available.

Some species were assessed using an earlier set of criteria. Species assessed using this system have the following instead of Near Threatened and Least Concern categories:

Subclass Theria
Infraclass:  Eutheria
Order:  Primates
----The order Primates contains all the species commonly related to the   lemur s,  monkey s, and ape s, with the latter category including [[humans]]. It is divided informally into three main groupings:  prosimian s, monkeys of the New World monkey|New World , and monkeys and apes of the  Catarrhini|Old World .

Suborder:  Haplorrhini
Infraorder:  Simiiformes 
Parvorder: Catarrhini
Superfamily:  Cercopithecoidea
Family:  Cercopithecidae  (Old World monkeys)
Genus: '' Macaca (genus)|Macaca ''
  Rhesus Macaque]  ''Macaca mulatta'' LR/nt
انواع موشهای افغانستان
Order:  Rodent ia (rodents)
----Rodents make up the largest order of mammals, with over 40 percent of mammalian species. They have two [[incisor]]s in the upper and lower jaw which grow continually and must be kept short by gnawing. Most rodents are small though the  capybara  can weigh up to 45&nbsp;kg (100&nbsp;lb).

 Suborder: Sciurognathi
 Family:  Sciuridae (squirrels)
 Subfamily:  Sciurinae
 Tribe:  Pteromyini]
  Genus: '' Hylopetes ''
 Afghan Flying Squirrel  ''Hylopetes baberi'' LR/nt
 Genus: '' Petaurista ''
  Red Giant Flying Squirrel  ''Petaurista petaurista'' LR/lc
   Subfamily:   Callosciurinae
 Genus: ''  Funambulus  ''
  Northern Palm Squirrel  ''Funambulus pennantii'' LR/lc
  Subfamily:   Xerinae
  Tribe:   Xerini 
 Genus: ''  Spermophilopsis  ''
    Long-clawed Ground Squirrel   ''Spermophilopsis leptodactylus'' LR/lc
   Tribe:    Marmotini 
  Genus: ''  Marmota ''
Long-tailed Marmot   ''Marmota caudata'' LR/nt
    Genus: ''   Spermophilus   ''
     Yellow Ground Squirrel   ''Spermophilus fulvus'' LR/lc
   Family: [[Gliridae]] (dormice)
    Subfamily: [[Leithiinae]]
  Genus: ''[[Dryomys]]''
 Forest dormouse   ''Dryomys nitedula'' LR/nt
   Family:    Dipodidae  (jerboas)
   Subfamily:   Allactaginae
 Genus: '' Allactaga ''
  Small Five-toed Jerboa  ''Allactaga elater'' LR/lc
 Euphrates Jerboa]] ''Allactaga euphratica'' LR/nt
   Hotson's Jerboa  ''Allactaga hotsoni'' LR/lc
  Subfamily: Cardiocraniinae
 Genus: ''[[Salpingotus]]''
 Thomas's Pygmy Jerboa  ''Salpingotus thomasi'' DD
 Subfamily:  Dipodinae
 Genus: '' Jaculus (rodent)|Jaculus ''
   Blanford's Jerboa  ''Jaculus blanfordi'' LR/lc
 Family:  Calomyscidae
 Genus: '' Calomyscus ''
   Baluchi Mouse-like Hamster  ''Calomyscus baluchi'' LR/lc
  [[Afghan Mouse-like Hamster  ''Calomyscus mystax'' LR/nt
 Family:  Cricetidae
 Subfamily:  Cricetinae
 Genus: '' Cricetulus ''
 Gray Dwarf Hamster ''Cricetulus migratorius'' LR/nt
 Subfamily:  Arvicolinae
 Genus: '' Alticola ''
 Silver Mountain Vole]] ''Alticola argentatus'' LR/lc
 Genus: '' Blanfordimys ''
   Afghan Vole  ''Blanfordimys afghanus'' LR/lc
   Bucharian Vole  ''Blanfordimys bucharicus'' LR/nt
 Genus: '' Ellobius ''
   Southern Mole Vole  ''Ellobius fuscocapillus'' LR/lc
 Genus: '' Microtus ''
   Juniper Vole  ''Microtus juldaschi'' LR/lc
   Tien Shan Vole  ''Microtus kirgisorum'' LR/lc
   Transcaspian Vole  ''Microtus transcaspicus'' LR/lc
 Family:  Muridae  (mice, rats, voles, gerbils, hamsters, etc.)
 Subfamily:  Gerbillinae

   Swarthy Gerbil  ''Gerbillus aquilus'' LR/lc
  '' Gerbillus nanus '' LC
 Genus: '' Meriones (genus)|Meriones ''
   Sundevall's Jird  ''Meriones crassus'' LC
   Libyan Jird  ''Meriones libycus'' LC
   Mid-day Jird  ''Meriones meridianus'' LR/lc
   Persian Jird  ''Meriones persicus'' LR/lc
   Zarudny's Jird  ''Meriones zarudnyi'' EN
 Genus: '' Rhombomys ''
   Great Gerbil  ''Rhombomys opimus'' LR/lc
 Genus: '' Tatera ''
   Indian Gerbil  ''Tatera indica'' LR/lc
 Subfamily:  Murinae
 Genus: '' Apodemus ''
   Ward's Field Mouse  ''Apodemus wardi'' LR/lc
 Genus: '' Millardia ''
   Sand-colored Soft-furred Rat  ''Millardia gleadowi'' LR/lc
 Genus: '' Nesokia ''
   Short-tailed Bandicoot Rat  ''Nesokia indica'' LC
 Genus: '' Rattus ''
   Tanezumi Rat  ''Rattus tanezumi'' LR/lc
   Turkestan Rat  ''Rattus turkestanicus'' LR/lc

 Order:  Lagomorpha  (lagomorphs
----
The lagomorphs comprise two families,  Leporidae   hare s and  rabbit s), and Ochotonidae  pika s). Though they can resemble  rodent s, and were classified as a  Taxonomic rank|superfamily  in that order until the early 20th century, they have since been considered a separate order. They differ from rodents in a number of physical characteristics, such as having four incisors in the upper jaw rather than two.

 Family:  Ochotonidae  (pikas)
 Genus: '' Ochotona ''
   Large-eared Pika  ''Ochotona macrotis'' LR/lc
   Afghan Pika  ''Ochotona rufescens'' LR/lc
  [[Turkestan Red Pika]] ''Ochotona rutila'' LR/lc
 Family:  Leporidae  (rabbits,hares)
 Genus: '' Lepus ''
   Cape hare  ''Lepus capensis'' LR/lc
 Order:  Erinaceomorpha  (hedgehogs and gymnures
----
 Image:Long Eared hedgehog.jpg|thumb Long-eared Hedgehog
The order Erinaceomorpha contains a single family, Erinaceidae, which comprise the  hedgehog s and  gymnure s. The hedgehogs are easily recognised by their spines while gymnures look more like large rats.

 Family:  Erinaceidae  (hedgehogs)
 Subfamily:  Erinaceinae
 Genus: '' Hemiechinus ''
   Long-eared Hedgehog  ''Hemiechinus auritus'' LR/lc
   Brandt's Hedgehog  ''Hemiechinus hypomelas'' LR/lc

 Order:  Soricomorpha  (shrews, moles, and soledons

The "shrew-forms" are insectivorous mammals. The shrews and soledons closely resemble mice while the moles are stout bodied burrowers.

 Family:  Soricidae  (shrews)
 Subfamily:  Crocidurinae
 Genus: '' Crocidura ''
   Gmelin's White-toothed Shrew  ''Crocidura gmelini'' LR/lc
   Taiga Shrew  ''Crocidura pullata'' LR/lc
   Lesser White-toothed Shrew  ''Crocidura suaveolens'' LR/lc
   Zarudny's Shrew  ''Crocidura zarudnyi'' LR/lc
 Genus: ''[[Suncus]]''
   Etruscan Shrew  ''Suncus etruscus'' LC
   Asian House Shrew  ''Suncus murinus'' LR/lc
 Subfamily:  Soricinae
 Tribe:  Soricini
 Genus: '' Sorex ''
   Eurasian Pygmy Shrew  ''Sorex minutus'' LR/lc

 Order:  Chiroptera  (bats

The bats' most distinguishing feature is that their forelimbs are developed as wings, making them the only mammals in the world naturally capable of flight. Bat species account for about 20% of all mammals.

 Family:  Vespertilionidae
 Subfamily: [[Myotinae
 Genus: '' Myotis ''
   Lesser Mouse-eared Bat''Myotis blythii'' LR/lc
   Geoffroy's Bat  ''Myotis emarginatus'' VU
   Hodgson's Bat  ''Myotis formosus'' LR/lc
   Fraternal Myotis  ''Myotis frater'' LR/nt
   Kashmir Cave Bat  ''Myotis longipes'' VU
   Whiskered Myotis  ''Myotis muricola'' LR/lc
   Whiskered bat  ''Myotis mystacinus'' LR/lc
 Subfamily:  Vespertilioninae
 Genus: '' Barbastella ''
   Eastern Barbastelle  ''Barbastella leucomelas'' LR/lc
 Genus: '' Eptesicus ''
   Botta's Serotine  ''Eptesicus bottae'' LC
   Gobi Big Brown Bat  ''Eptesicus gobiensis'' LR/lc
   Sind Bat  ''Eptesicus nasutus'' VU
   Serotine bat  ''Eptesicus serotinus'' LR/lc
 Genus: '' Hypsugo ''
   Savi's Pipistrelle  ''Hypsugo savii'' LR/lc
 Genus: '' Nyctalus ''
   Lesser Noctule  ''Nyctalus leisleri'' LR/nt
   Mountain Noctule  ''Nyctalus montanus'' LR/nt
 Genus: '' Otonycteris ''
Desert Long-eared Bat''Otonycteris hemprichii'' LR/lc
***Genus: ''[[Pipistrellus]]''
 Indian Pipistrelle''Pipistrellus coromandra'' LR/lc
 Java Pipistrelle''Pipistrellus javanicus'' LR/lc
Kuhl's Pipistrelle''Pipistrellus kuhlii'' LC
 Common Pipistrelle''Pipistrellus pipistrellus'' LC
 Least Pipistrelle''Pipistrellus tenuis'' LR/lc
Genus: ''Plecotus''
 Grey long-eared bat''Plecotus austriacus'' LR/lc
Genus: ''Scotophilus''
 Greater Asiatic Yellow Bat  ''Scotophilus heathi'' LR/lc
 Genus: '' Vespertilio ''
  Parti-coloured bat  ''Vespertilio murinus'' LR/lc
 Subfamily:  Miniopterinae
 Genus: '' Miniopterus ''
   Schreiber's Long-fingered Bat  ''Miniopterus schreibersii'' LC
 Family:  Rhinopomatidae
 Genus: '' Rhinopoma ''
   Lesser Mouse-tailed Bat  ''Rhinopoma hardwickei'' LC
   Small Mouse-tailed Bat  ''Rhinopoma muscatellum'' LR/lc
 Family:  Molossidae
 Genus: '' Tadarida ''
   European Free-tailed Bat  ''Tadarida teniotis'' LR/lc
 Family:  Megadermatidae
 Genus: '' Megaderma ''
  '' Megaderma lyra]]'' LR/lc
 Family:  Rhinolophidae
 Subfamily:  Rhinolophinae
 Genus: '' Rhinolophus ''
   Blasius's Horseshoe Bat  ''Rhinolophus blasii'' NT
   Bokhara Horseshoe Bat  ''Rhinolophus bocharicus'' LR/lc
   Greater Horseshoe Bat  ''Rhinolophus ferrumequinum'' LR/nt
   Lesser horseshoe bat  ''Rhinolophus hipposideros'' LC
   Blyth's Horseshoe Bat  ''Rhinolophus lepidus'' LR/lc
   Mehely's Horseshoe Bat  ''Rhinolophus mehelyi'' VU
 Subfamily:  Hipposiderinae
 Genus: '' Asellia ''
   Trident Leaf-nosed Bat  ''Asellia tridens'' LC
 Genus: '' Hipposideros ''
   Fulvus Roundleaf Bat  ''Hipposideros fulvus'' LR/lc
راسته گوشتخواران
Order:  Carnivora  (carnivorans
  

There are over 260 species of carnivorans, the majority of which eat meat as their primary dietary item. They have a characteristic skull shape and dentition.

*Suborder: Feliformia
Family: Felidae (cats)
Subfamily: Felinae
Genus: ''Acinonyx''
 Cheetah  ''Acinonyx jubatus'' VU
 Genus: '' Caracal ''
   Caracal  ''Caracal caracal'' LC
 Genus: '' Felis ''
   Jungle Cat  ''Felis chaus'' LC
   Sand Cat  ''Felis margarita'' NT
   Wildcat  ''Felis silvestris'' LC
   Pallas's Cat  ''Felis manul'' NT
 Genus: '' Lynx ''
   Eurasian Lynx  ''Lynx lynx'' NT
 Genus: '' Prionailurus ''
   Leopard Cat  ''Prionailurus bengalensis'' LC
 Subfamily:  Pantherinae
 Genus: '' Panthera ''
   Lion  ''Panthera leo'' VU
   Leopard  ''Panthera pardus'' LC
   Tiger  ''Panthera tigris'' EN
 Genus: ''[[Uncia (genus)|Uncia ''
   Snow Leopard  ''Uncia uncia'' EN
 Family:  Viverridae  (civets, mongooses, etc.)
 Subfamily:  Paradoxurinae
 Genus: '' Paguma ''
   Masked Palm Civet  ''Paguma larvata'' LR/lc
 Subfamily:  Viverrinae
 Genus: '' Viverricula ''
   Small Indian Civet  ''Viverricula indica'' LR/lc
 Family:  Herpestidae  (mongooses)
 Genus: '' Herpestes ''
   Indian Gray Mongoose  ''Herpestes edwardsii'' LR/lc
   Small Asian Mongoose  ''Herpestes javanicus'' LR/lc
 Family:  Hyaenidae  (hyaenas)
 Genus: '' Hyaena ''
   Striped Hyena  ''Hyaena hyaena'' LR/nt
 Suborder:  Caniformia
 Family:  Canidae  (dogs, foxes)
 Genus: '' Vulpes ''
   Blanford's Fox  ''Vulpes cana'' VU
   Corsac Fox  ''Vulpes corsac'' LC
   Rueppell's Fox  ''Vulpes rueppelli'' DD
   Red Fox  ''Vulpes vulpes'' LC
 Genus: '' Canis ''
   Golden Jackal  ''Canis aureus'' LC
   Gray Wolf  ''Canis lupus'' LC
 Family:  Ursidae  (bears)
 Genus: '' Ursus (genus)|Ursus ''
   Brown Bear  ''Ursus arctos'' LR/lc
   Asiatic Black Bear  ''Ursus thibetanus'' VU
 Family:  Mustelidae  (mustelids)
 Genus: '' Mustela ''
   Stoat  ''Mustela erminea'' LR/lc
   Least Weasel  ''Mustela nivalis'' LR/lc
 Genus: '' Vormela ''
   Marbled Polecat  ''Vormela peregusna'' LR/lc
 Genus: '' Martes]]''
   Beech Marten  ''Martes foina'' LR/lc
 Genus: '' Mellivora ''
   Ratel  ''Mellivora capensis'' LR/lc
 Genus: '' Lutra ''
   European Otter  ''Lutra lutra'' NT

  Order:  Artiodactyla  (even-toed ungulates


The even-toed ungulates are [[ungulate]]s whose weight is borne about equally by the third and fourth toes, rather than mostly or entirely by the third as in  perissodactyls  There are about 220 artiodactyl species, including many that are of great  economic  importance to  human s.

 Family:  Suidae  (pigs)
 Subfamily:  Suinae
 Genus: ''[   Sus (genus)|Sus ''
   Boar  ''Sus scrofa'' LR/lc
 Family:  Moschidae]]
 Genus: '' Musk deer|Moschus ''
   Himalayan Musk Deer  ''Moschus chrysogaster'' LR/nt
 Family:  Cervidae  (deer)
 Subfamily:  Cervinae
 Genus: '' Cervus ''
   Central Asian Red Deer  ''Cervus affinis'' LR/lc
Family:  Bovidae  (cattle, antelope, sheep, goats)
 Subfamily:  Antilopinae
 Genus: '' Gazella ''
   Chinkara  ''Gazella bennettii'' LC
   Goitered Gazelle  ''Gazella subgutturosa'' VU
Subfamily: Caprinae
Genus: ''Capra (genus)|Capra''
Wild Goat''Capra aegagrus'' VU
 Markhor''Capra falconeri'' EN
 Siberian Ibex''Capra sibrica'' LR/lc
Genus: ''Nemorhaedus''
''Nemorhaedus goral'' LR/nt
Genus: '' Ovis''
  Argali  ''Ovis ammon'' VU
  Mouflon  ''Ovis orientalis'' VU

<ref>Mohammadian,H.An Introduction to Mammals of Afghanistan.Shabpareh Publishing Institute.2011.Tehran.Iran.ISBN: 978-600-5038-15-6

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